# First let's make a folder to work in
mkdir awk

# Let's get some files
cp /home/data/awkFiles/* ./

# Let's have a look at these file
head  | column -t
head cichlids.imiss  | column -t

# Let's get the first line
# in awk, NR means number of line
awk 'NR==1' cichlids.imiss
awk 'NR==10' cichlids.imiss # or the tenth line

# Get only every 20th line
awk 'NR%20==0' cichlids.imiss

# awk can be used like grep:
grep "INDV" cichlids.imiss
awk '/INDV/' cichlids.imiss

# There are some samples in here that are duplicates
# They end with .00

# If we get the with grep, we get lot's of other lines
grep ".00" cichlids.imiss

# in awk we can say, that it should only look in the first column
# Columns are referred to with a "$" sign
awk '$1~/.00/' cichlids.imiss

# Now the problem is that just like grep, awk interprets the dot a any character
# To avoid that, we have to escape it with the backslash
awk '$1~/\.00/' cichlids.imiss

# Let's use awk for something else that grep cannot do
# Get all samples with more than 1% missing data
awk '$5>0.01' cichlids.imiss

# Get just the codes of these samples with high missing data proportion
awk '$5>0.01' cichlids.imiss | cut -f 1
awk '{if($5>0.01) print $1}' cichlids.imiss

# Get the mean missing data proportion
awk '{a+=$5}END{print a/NR}' cichlids.imiss

# Actually the header is still in here, so let's
awk '{if(NR>1) a+=$5}END{print a/(NR-1)}' cichlids.imiss

# Now if let's get the mean missing data proportion per group
# Add the information of the samples:

# First we need to combine the two files
# Let's have a look at their structure again
head cichlids.imiss

# We cannot just paste them together as they are sorted in different ways
# Therefore, we need to sort the files First
sort -nk 1 >

# Or we can just do that directly without rewriting them by using <() which makes linux interpret the output of the command between the brackets as a file
# This is a useful alternative to generating lots of intermediate files
paste <(sort -nk 1 cichlids.imiss) >

# Now annoyingly the header is somewhere in between
cat <(grep INDV <(grep -v INDV >


# Let's check how many samples we find in each group
cut -f 2 | sort | uniq -c

# Get the mean missing data proportion per group
awk '{missing[$7]+=$5; count[$7]++}END{for(g in missing){print g,missing[g]/count[g]}}'  | column -t

# Add a new column with the individual name (column 1, e.g. ind1) and group information (column 7, e.g. piscivore) combined, e.g. ind1_piscivore
# To make it neater to look at, I pipe it into column -t which shows the result with all columns aligned
awk '{print $0"\t"$1"_"$7}' | column -t

# replace the fifth column by this new combined individual and group information
awk '{$5=$1"_"$7; print $0}' | head | column -t

# You can also modify the numbers, change the proportion of missing data to percent of missing data (x100)
awk '{$5=$5*100; print $0}' | head | column -t

# Order the lines of according to the order of individuals in cichlids.imiss
awk 'FNR==NR {file2array[$1] = $0; next} $1 in file2array {print file2array[$1]}' cichlids.imiss